Purim 2022: The Purim Holiday is Back and Better Than Ever From Europe to the Middle East, Jews have been subjected to some of the most ruthless minority treatment in history. There have been many moments where Jewish communities around the world have thought, "This is the end." However, most of the time it all works out and as a result, a new holiday is born. One choice joke that American Jews often like to employ during such holidays is, "They tried to kill us, they failed, let’s eat." On Purim, this sentence is altered to read, "They tried to kill us, they failed, let’s party." For the last two years, the pandemic canceled this opportunity. However, Purim 2022 is returning with vengeance and several major events in Israel. Grab your Purim costume and your alcohol of choice and take to the streets and bakeries for all the merriment. [caption id="attachment_33622" align="alignnone" width="590"] Plate of traditional Hamantaschen cookies[/caption] Hamantaschen: A Tasty Symbol of Jewish Victory Sure, there are plenty of parades and things to do in Tel Aviv during the Purim holiday. Yet before all that you need to set a good carb base for all the alcohol you will surely consume. There is no better pre-drinking snack than some classic hamantaschen. These triangle shaped treats are sculpted to look like the three pointed hat of the famous Jewish enemy Haman. Haman wanted all the Jews of Persia massacred. It was through the efforts of Queen Esther, that the Jews of Persia were saved. She convinced King Ahasuerus to spare her people and execute Haman in the place of her Uncle Mordecai. For this reason, on Purim Jews read the Megillat Esther and indulge in some delicious little Haman hats or hamantaschen. Some of the best hamantaschen to be found in Tel Aviv is at Puni or Lechamin Bakery. Puni, the first cake shop in Yaffo, was built by a Polish immigrant by the name of Avi Puni, who came to Israel in 1922. The bakery specializes in many assortments of sweet and savory baked goods. All of these tasty treats are made using recipes straight from the Puni family cookbook. Throughout the year they are known for their signature bourekas and marzipan but during the Purim holiday, the hamantaschen reign supreme. Lechamin Bakery is known for its shelves of freshly baked and delicious loaves of bread from sourdough to rye. Exiting Lechamin without an assortment of fresh baked goods is next to impossible. This Purim 2022, indulge in their classic chocolate hamantaschen and pair it with a cup of their delicious coffee. [caption id="attachment_33531" align="alignnone" width="678"] Participants of the Zombie-Walk Tel Aviv dressed in a zombie Purim costume[/caption] The Walking Dead: Purim 2022 Edition Purim costumes come in all shapes, sizes, and colors, however, for certain occasions a dress code is required. Start prepping some fake blood and your finest ripped shirts for the Zombie Walk on March 19th. This is one of the most beloved themed Purim parades in all of Israel. People from far and wide come to Tel Aviv to take part in this celebration of the dead. In earlier years, the number of walkers was in the thousands. This year, volunteers are hoping for a similar turnout. The parade kicks off at 9:30pm at the corner of King George and Sderot Ben Tzion. Everyone is welcome, the young, the old, and do not be afraid to take your costume to another level of terrifying. [caption id="attachment_33625" align="alignnone" width="614"] Parade participants dressed in Purim costume[/caption] Adloyada is Aramaic for Stinking Drunk The Adloyada parades are by far the most celebrated events in Israel for the Purim holiday as well as the most historic. The first parade took place in Tel Aviv in 1912 and from that point on have been a staple of the Purim holiday in Israel. The Amaraic phrase that gave birth to the name Adloyada is “Ad Delo Yada'' roughly translated as “until no one longer knows.” Traditionally you must get so drunk on Purim that you can no longer tell the difference between the names Haman and Mordecai. These names look completely different in the Megillah so you have got to be pretty wasted. The Adloyada parades not only consist of people but some fairly elaborate floats. In the past, these floats paid homage to the history and culture of Israel. Some designs included giant Ben Gurion heads reading Israel’s declaration of independence or the twelve tribes of Israel. Today, the floats reflect a more modern touch of Israeli culture. The criteria are outlandish, colorful, and loud. DJs and musicians from across the nation come to spin their records and blast their horns from atop the floats. The overarching theme is diversity and difference, which can be seen in each and every float and every Purim costume. [caption id="attachment_33137" align="alignnone" width="518"] Purim Items: Hamantaschen (Oznei Haman), Purim masks, and Gragger (traditional noise maker)[/caption] Purim: A Much Needed Celebration of Life This Purim 2022 is possibly the most needed holiday in the last few years for the Jewish people and Israel. After all the stress, isolation, and precautions, it is high time that the entire nation let its hair down. Celebrating the continuation of life is a key pillar of many Jewish holidays, including Purim. This upcoming Purim holiday will be a celebration of survival not only for the Jews of ancient Persia but also Jews of the modern age.
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The center of Italy’s cultural and political life, Rome has one of the greatest concentrations of artistic treasures and historic monuments of the world. The Roman Jewish community is the oldest of the Diaspora: its ancient origins, its rich historical and artistic heritage, and monuments that have survived to the present day make the community of Rome a unique example not only in Italy but in the whole Diaspora. Credit: www.visitJewishItaly.it This long continuous presence has left traces stratified with those of the other inhabitants with whom through good and bad the Jews have lived for over two millennia. Thus many ancient Roman monuments bear signs or memories for their presence. One great example is the Arch of Titus, in the Roman Forum, with scenes showing the deportation of Jews from Palestine, including prisoners carrying a seven-branched candelabrum to Rome after the destruction of the Temple of Jerusalem. A constant factor in the Jewish history of Rome was papal policy. For centuries it meant persecution and discrimination. [caption id="attachment_30195" align="alignnone" width="2048"] Jewish Museum in Rome[/caption] There are several places of Jewish interest and the most important is surely the Ghetto, the specific area bounded by the Isola Tiberina section of the Tiber, the Ponte Fabricio (Ponte Quattro Capi), Via del Portico d’Ottavia and Piazza delle Cinque Scole. This was the area designated as Rome’s Ghetto by Pope Paul IV in the bull ‘Cum nimis absurdum’ of July 14th, 1555. It is today the center of Jewish life, with the most important synagogue and a Jewish school, kosher restaurants and shops. This area is very surprising since Jews were already living here in Roman times.
Evidence of Jewish life in Izmir dates back to Hellenistic and Roman times. Regional archeological findings point to a thriving Jewish community in this coastal city, then known as Smyrna. While this Romaniot community seems to have enjoyed considerable importance in antiquity, its presence started declining in the late Byzantine period, as Jews got settled in surrounding towns, rather than Izmir itself. It appears that in the year 1424, when the Ottomans conquered the, by then, small and relatively unimportant town, Izmir no longer had an organized Jewish community. The expulsion of the Jews from Spain (1492) and Portugal (1497), however, opened a new page in the history of Ottoman Jewry. Thousands of exiled Jews settled throughout the Empire, where they made considerable contributions to local trade and economies. In different time periods, including Ottoman Empire and Republic of Turkey, some Ashkenazi groups from various countries also settled in the city, but the population superiority was always kept by the Sephardi. [caption id="attachment_30221" align="alignnone" width="1368"] Etz Hayim Synagogue[/caption] The resettlement of Jews to Izmir and the reestablishment of the community took place by the end of 16th century and the beginning of the 17th century. This period coincides with the time of the extraordinary economic growth of the city; when the port of Izmir began to develop into the most important trading center in the Levant. The region reserved for Jews according to the settlement order of the Ottoman Empire, was neighboring the Turkish quarter together with the harbor and bazaar area. Taking the advantage of this location many Jews started to find commerce related jobs like translator, trader etc. Known as the "Juderia” (later to be named as the “First Juderia”), this region consisted of a group of neighborhoods whose names and numbers changed over time. Daily life structures such as houses, workplaces, places of worship, schools and hospitals were built in this region, in which the Jewish community lived for several centuries. By the middle of the 17th century, the Jewish community numbered in the thousands, and displayed a large degree of heterogeneity. As the waves of Jewish immigration to Izmir during the 17th century came from several different sources (within and outside the Ottoman Empire), the community organized in several synagogues, had their own leadership and institutions, and maintained contact with other Jewish communities. [caption id="attachment_30220" align="alignnone" width="1368"] Beit Hillel Synagogue[/caption] Born in Izmir in 1626, Shabbetai Zvi and his Sabbatean movement left a deep mark on the history of Izmir’s Jewish community. Indeed, Zvi’s messianism movement reverberated throughout the entire Jewish world, and some consider it to have represented an existential threat to Judaism in the 17th century. The later Ottoman period in Izmir was characterized by the growth of the Jewish population and the maturing of religious and secular intellectual life, evidenced by important spiritual leaders like Rav. Hayim Palachi, as well as the great number of the Jewish newspapers and secular literature from this period. Starting from the second half of the 19th century, the westward spread of the urban settlement attracted the attention of the Greeks and the Muslims, as well as the Jews. Thus, the adventure of the “Second Juderia”, i.e., the new Jewish quarter which was formed in this new part of Izmir lasted only for about a century. The wealthier or more educated members of the community moved to this neighborhood first. Structures required by daily life were built, activities required by community life were organized, but most differently and importantly, in this new settlement area the neighborhoods became multicultural and multi-religious. [caption id="attachment_30218" align="alignnone" width="1368"] Algazi Synagogue external view[/caption] By the last quarter of the 19th century and the first half of the 20th century, due to regional and World wars, the Jewish community of Izmir faced a lot of emigration traffic, both inbound (mainly from Central and Eastern Europe) and outbound (mainly to Europe and the Americas). Finally, the establishment of the State of Israel, also created a big immigration wave. Ever since, the community continued to diminish gradually due to economic and political reasons, as well as issues like low growth of population, inter-marriages, youngsters moving out for education / job opportunities, etc. As another result of the settlement movement, the structure of both neighborhoods changed. By the 1950s, the number of inhabitants of the "First Juderia '' dwindled considerably, and later to be abandoned completely. Those who did not go abroad from the “Second Juderia” began to move to the Alsancak region, which they considered as a more upscale area. [caption id="attachment_30219" align="alignnone" width="1333"] Alsancak region of Izmir[/caption] Out of many magnificent synagogues built in previous centuries in Izmir, only a few survived for centuries due through disasters like earthquakes, fires, etc and declining population. The remaining synagogues, some preserved and some in ruins, together with the cortejos, the cemeteries, and an elevator tower, constitute a living testimony to community’s life in Izmir, which was one of the most spectacular of its kind and had the most spiritual and cultural influence on all Jewish diaspora communities in the 17th and 18th centuries. [caption id="attachment_30225" align="alignnone" width="1368"] Shalom synagogue[/caption] The tangible cultural heritage examples located at the First Juderia, within the borders of "the heart" of the city, create a unique historical value with the structural density formed in the area. On the other hand, although not managed by the community any more, located in the Second Juderia, a street elevator -one of the city's landmark towers, and a hospital continue to serve the wider society of the city. Musicians from various periods have contributed to different styles of music and gained fame beyond the community. Also, some culinary contributions from Sephardic cuisine to local street food culture, turning out to be one of the symbols of Izmir in the present day, is to be recognized as an important intangible cultural heritage. [caption id="attachment_30224" align="alignnone" width="2048"] Izmir Sephardic Cultural festival[/caption] A festival has been created under the name of “Izmir Sephardic Culture Festival” to introduce the Jewish heritage of Izmir. The festival organized during Hanukkah holidays in 2018 and 2019, has received extraordinary attention and participation right away from the local citizens. It is planned to continue with wider participation, as soon as national and international pandemic regulations permit.
Szeged is not only known as the City of Sunshine, but also as a place of abundant experiences and recreation. The city offers colorful programs and spectacular architectural features. Szeged, the third largest town in Hungary, lies in the southern part of the country, at the junction of Rivers Tisza and Maros. By far, the city’s significance not only lies in its size, but in its rebirth after the Great Flood of 1879, becoming one of the most influential towns of the region by the early 20th century. It is mainly characterized by colorful cultural offers, vibrant college life and unparalleled built heritage. The city of Szeged can be directly approached from Budapest via M0 and M5 highways, by train or by bus. The devastating Great Flood had almost entirely destroyed the city, after which it was carefully redesigned based on Parisian city planning, earning its nickname Paris of the Great Plain. Its grandiose palaces, which appeared at the turn of the 19/20th centuries, reflect competing architectural styles, yet creating harmony. The local Jewry played a pivotal role in science, arts and literature as well as in rebuilding the city. Their splendid palaces and new synagogue mark the heyday of Szeged’s Jewish community. The New Synagogue is the second largest synagogue in Hungary and the fourth largest one in the world, designed by renowned architect Lipót Baumhorn (inaugurated in 1903). Besides Romanesque, Gothic and Baroque style elements, Art Nouveau plant motifs make the interior of the New Synagogue special. Lipót Baumhorn (1860–1932) who designed and (re)built over 42 synagogues and numerous public and residential buildings in Austria-Hungary, considered the Szeged synagogue his most outstanding piece. The rebirth of Szeged not only had an great impact on its built heritage, but also affected its social and economic life giving floor to outstanding local Jewish entrepreneurs and industrialists, such as the Lengyel and Seifmann families who played crucial role in the process of rebuilding. Mór Seifmann’s talent is marked by several prestigious orders; he made the furniture for the Szeged–Csongrád Savings Bank, the National Theatre of Szeged, the spa (later known as the Anna Baths), the Hotel Europa, the Hotel Kass and that of the assembly room of the City Council. Another nationally famous Jewish family that produced furniture of outstanding quality was the Lengyel family. For instance, all the furnishings for the grand Hotel Tisza on Széchenyi Square were made here. The family bought a residential building for the company at the corner of Klauzál Square and Kelemen Street, (currently, the Kis Virág patisserie can be found here). Professional reconstruction of the downtown Klauzál Square and Kárász Street earned the prestigious Europa Nostra Award in 2004. Further reconstruction works included Kölcsey Street, Dugonics Square and Somogyi Street. As a result, significant buildings from the pre-flood era – the Rector’s Office of the University of Szeged, the Kárász House and the Dávid Kiss Palace, as well as palaces of the early 20th century that were mainly owned by Jewish families – flourish in a new surrounding. The Milkó Palace is an outstanding one among the latter mentioned residential buildings. The Milkó family, who held a lot of irons in the fire, were involved in real estate development, timber trade, railway construction and brick production. Along with running a steam saw factory and a gravel quarry, they were shareholders in the Szalán pharmaceutical company. One can discover the hidden treasures of the town during various thematic tours on Art Nouveau, gastronomy, literature, theater and Jewish heritage offered by local tour guides and the Tourinform Agency. The Anna Medicinal-, Thermal and Wellness Spa offers an excellent place for recreation; medicinal and wellness pools, infra- and Finn saunas await their visitors in a heritage-site building. Families can also choose from colorful programs. The Szeged Zoo is one of the youngest, largest and most peculiar ones in the country. [caption id="attachment_25610" align="alignnone" width="669"] European brown bear (Ursus arctos arctos) in the water[/caption] Szeged offers a multitude of adventures for the lovers of active tourism. It is easy to get around town by bike (can be rented at the Tourinform Agency). Also, pawed cycle tracks lead to sites of the surrounding settlements. The Botanic Gardens of the University of Szeged in Újszeged are also well worth visiting, which host a more than 90-year-old collection of plants among them the largest outdoor Indian Lotus population in Central Europe. Szeged’s outstanding buildings, squares and parks can be discovered during a 45 min trip on the sightseeing train. These guided tours introduce the rich local heritage in multiple languages. The downtown area of the city is relatively small and compact that can be easily explored on foot as well. The rich Jewish cultural heritage of Szeged can be discovered in self-guided tours offered by the free-to-download mobile application Jewish Heritage Szeged. The Herzl family The Herzl family was one of the most notable Jewish families in Szeged; among their ancestors was Mihály Pollack, founder of the local Jewish congregation. Pollack was involved in commerce and moved from Kisbér to Szeged in 1781, although Jews were only permitted to settle in town as a group from 1786. Mihály Pollack was the first Jewish person in Szeged to buy a house where religious gatherings could be held before the first synagogue was built. Although Pollack had no sons, his daughters’ children played a significant role in the Jewish community. For instance, Mózes Herzl, a merchant, was one of the first trustees of the Talmud-Torah Chevra (an association dealing exclusively with Hebrew teachings), which was established in 1820. His wife, Perl Grünwald, was a founding member of the first Hungarian Jewish women’s society in Szeged (established in 1835). Béla Balázs – internationally renowned film theorist Béla Balázs (1884–1949) author, symbolist poet, screenwriter and influential film theorist, was born in Szeged on 4 August 1884, as Herbert Bauer. His talent was revealed at an early age. He attended university in Budapest, where he befriended world-renowned composers Béla Bartók and Zoltán Kodály. In 1908, when he earned his Master of Arts degree, his works were published along with those of the most outstanding Hungarian poets of the time, Endre Ady, Mihály Babits and Gyula Juhász, in the A Holnap (Tomorrow) anthology. His main book on film theory, A látható ember (The Visible Man) was published in 1925. He lived in Berlin from 1926 until 1930, where he worked closely with Bertolt Brecht and became friends with the famous actress Leni Riefenstahl, for whom he wrote scripts. He received the highly prestigious Kossuth Prize in 1948 and passed away the following year. He has a memorial tablet at the Weiss or Vajda House and a bust on Dóm Square in the pantheon, while a projection room for art films bears his name in the local cinema, Belvárosi Mozi. In 1958, a studio in Budapest for young experimental filmmakers was later named in his honour as was a national prize for filmmakers.
Troyes La Champagne, capital of the department of Aube, is a unique destination to explore once and again, 160 kilometers south-east of Paris and 120 kilometers from Reims. First on the list of things to see, is the fabulous collection of half-timbered houses which makes the town proud. They have received a glorious facelift, adorning them in a multitude of colours. Water, on which the town was established, has also taken centre stage again. The quays of the Seine are an eloquent testimony to this. Before winding through Paris, the river passes through the former capital of the Champagne counts, where it is infused with the spirit of moderation. [caption id="attachment_30844" align="alignnone" width="2051"] Troyes Tourism Office© A. Lallemand - Troyes La Champagne Tourisme-0781[/caption] The venerable town of Troyes dates back to antiquity. The region was populated by nomads during the lower Palaeolithic period, around 400,000 BC, and was settled around 5,000 BC. The first traces of permanent settlements date from the end of the 6th century AD. Greek and Latin authors wrote of the Gallic people Tricasses around the 5th and 4th centuries BC. It is estimated that in the first centuries AD, the city of Augustobona Tricassium (Troyes) had around 6,000 souls and a surface area of around 80 hectares, bordered on the north and south by marshes. In the 12th century, Troyes experienced rapid commercial and financial expansion, as well as an incredible intellectual and cultural explosion. The Counts of Champagne helped the city to expand by stimulating the celebrated “Foires de Champagne” that attracted traders from around Europe, thanks in part to the fairs’ code of conduct, set up in 1137. In the time of the Counts of Champagne, while Troyes is famous for Chrétien de Troyes, it is also associated with two other key figures from the Middle Ages: Rashi and Saint Bernard de Clairvaux, whose names remain indelibly linked to the city of Troyes and the Aube département to this day. Both men were eminent thinkers and scholars who played a key role in their respective eras. At this time, Troyes was home to a large Jewish community. One of the city’s children would go on to become the world’s most famous Jew and an iconic figure in Judaism: Shlomo Ben Yitzhak, better known as Rashi (1040-1105). The famous Troyen is best known for his extraordinary talent as an interpreter and commentator of the Bible and the Talmud. He founded a Talmudic School in his native city, which attracted students from far and wide, keen to learn more about his comments on the sacred texts. His teachings remain influential today, representing a model of openness and dialogue between cultures. Rashi’s works also provide an important insight into the French language during his era (the second half of the 11th century), when French remained a variant of the ancient Champenois dialect and was still in its infancy. The Rabbi translated difficult and technical terms from Biblical Hebrew into this burgeoning language. Just like Chrétien de Troyes, Rashi made a major contribution to the expansion of French-language literature in the central Middle Ages. [caption id="attachment_30846" align="alignnone" width="1000"] RashisHouseExhibition_Library_P5©J. Boitelet2017[/caption] Later, in the 16th century, the city was an artistic hotbed. Troyes is largely a 16th century city, with most of today’s buildings and layout dating from what locals call the “beautiful 16th century”. A reference to a prosperous period in the city’s history, when Troyes was a melting pot of artistic talent and creativity in fields as varied as sculpture, painting, tapestry, embroidery, goldsmithery and glasswork. Arts flourished with the famous Troyes Schools of Sculpture and Painting or the Master Glassmakers school. Their talent, already recognized in the 13th century, were to create marvelous works and make Troyes a “blessed town of stained glass”. The saying goes that France is home to 80% of the world’s stained glass windows, that 80% of French stained glass windows are located north of the Loire, that 80% of the stained glass windows north of the Loire are in the Champagne region, and that 80% of the stained glass windows in the Champagne region are in the Aube département! A quick calculation would therefore suggest that around 40% of the planet’s stained glass windows can be found right here in Aube… Nowhere else in the world will you find the sheer number and quality of stained glass windows as you can here. Aube is home to some 9,000 sq. m of stained glass windows, from the majestic Troyes cathedral to the smallest village church! This priceless treasure is spread across some 200 religious buildings. No fewer than 1,042 listed windows come from the era known locally as the «beautiful 16th century» alone. [caption id="attachment_30847" align="alignnone" width="2100"] Troyes City Center ©CulturistiQ[/caption] Troyes is also famous for its Renaissance mansions, opulent residences built in the Renaissance period: Hôtel Juvénal des Ursins, Hôtel Marisy, Hôtel Mauroy, Hôtel du Petit Louvre, Hôtel du Moïse, Hôtel des Angoiselles, Hôtel de Chapelaines, Hôtel de Vauluisant, Hôtel du Commandeur…. This pivotal era, spanning both the Middle Ages and the Renaissance, has left a lasting legacy on Troyes as it is today. The city was ravaged by a great fire in 1524, but has been rebuilt to its original appearance, with buildings replacing their fire-damaged predecessors in exactly the same locations. The 19th century saw Troyes undergo an economic and industrial transformation, driven by the hosiery industry. The “factory shops” were born in TROYES in the 1960s, to sell off local manufacturers’ ends of lines. At first only open to factory staff, little by little they were opened to the general public. Let’s remind ourselves of some of Troyes great brands such as Lacoste, Doré Doré or Petit Bateau! [caption id="attachment_30848" align="alignnone" width="1124"] Portail Institut Rachi Crédit ©CDT Aube Valentin COLIN[/caption] This legacy has bestowed upon Troyes its unique identity. Today, the town is undergoing a significant transformation which began in 1970. This slow and patient restoration programme of the town’s heritage sites is coupled with the evolution of its economy. The modern city is a direct descendant of its medieval predecessor. This venerable city is now living through its fourth golden age. Troyes La Champagne is also full of historical and architectural gems. Explore and get astonished through its museum collections: History, Fine Arts, Modern Art, Hosiery, Apothecary, Archeology, Arts and popular traditions. The town is on a human scale, and the countryside is never far! Troyes Champagne Métropole now welcomes visitors passing through with pleasure. Troyes and its surroundings also benefit from multiple little greenery spots that are like many places where you can take a breath besides the frantic race of everyday life. The landscape reflects the local style, unless it is the other way around: modest in height, moderate in area, and accessible to all. [caption id="attachment_30849" align="alignnone" width="2000"] Champagne Vinyards ©CDTAube[/caption] Then there are the Champagne plains with endless farmland, the Grands Lacs de Champagne and the viticultural island of Montgueux, which surround the town. Or the completely different valleys of the Pays d’Othe, home to the vast and truly enchanting Chaource forest. The modest surroundings are a treasure chest for those who know where to look. In Troyes, Historic Capital of Champagne, the nearest vineyard is about ten kilometres away (Montgueux), so it would be a sacrilege to talk of gastronomy without mentioning the famous sparkling nectar of the region, Champagne! It is not well known that the Aube is the 2nd largest producing département of five of Champagne, after the Marne. The actual Champagne appellation vineyards planted and in production cover 6,500 hectares and supply a fifth of the production, with a potential of 50 million bottles, of which 6,3000,000 are produced by winegrowers and winemakers of the Aube. The 59 communes of the appellation are for the most part concentrated in the south of the département the length of the “Cotes des Bar” (from the Celtic “Bar”, meaning peak), between Bar-sur-Seine and Bar-sur-Aube, with a prolongation onto the slopes of Montgueux that overlook Troyes and, and to the northwest near Villenaxe-la-Grande. The Champagne Tourist Route has its own signposting system and the winegrowers there are ready with their welcome. In that context, since 2019 Aube département has become part of the Cultural Routes of the Council of Europe, which includes the Route of Jewish Heritage, as the cradle of a universally known recognized intangible Jewish heritage. In Aube département, the Rashi medieval Route of Champagne crosses two other prestigious European Routes: the Templars Route and the Cistercian Abbeys Route. To invigorate the territory, the Rashi Route proposes a combination of a cultural and tourist offering centered on the history of the ancient prestigious Jewish communities of Champagne. ©Texts by Troyes la Champagne Tourisme - ©Rashi Route information by CulturistiQ